Copyright Notices

Creative works on this site have been copyrighted by Kevin R. Williams (KRW) or respective owners over the years. The Pen Rules is a trademark of KRW in use since 1990. Adobe products are trademarks or registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc. Aladdin Systems corporate name has been changed to Allume Systems. Pantone is a registered trademark of Pantone, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of X-Rite, Inc. Other logos are trademarks or trade names of their respective owners.

In the United States, limited copyright protection of creative work is granted upon creation and transformation to a tangible form. From this point, the copyright holder is entitled to enforce exclusive rights or grant limited reproduction rights to others. A circled "C" serves notice to viewers that the work is copyrighted. A cautious user that did not create the work, seeks written permission to reproduce something even without the encircled "C".

According to the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988, a copyright need not be officially registered for the copyright owner to begin exercising his or her exclusive rights. Nevertheless, registration of works (where the laws of that jurisdiction provide) has benefits; it serves as prima facie evidence of a valid copyright and enables the copyright holder to seek statutory damages and attorney's fees.

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